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Using Research Indicators

This guide provides information about indicators that can be used as a measure of research performance

Citation Count

Citations per Output is a Snowball Metric.Snowball Metrics symbol

Citations per Output Snowball Metrics symbol calculates the average citations that an entity has received to date by each output. An entity can be an institution, a research group or an individual researcher.

Citation behaviour varies between disciplines. As a non-field normalised metric, Citations per Output is only useful for benchmarking against research outputs from similar disciplines.

Citations per Output will vary for the same research entity in different database sources. Comparisons should therefore only be made from the a single source. See appropriate use of publication and citation metrics.

Recommended sources for calculating Citations per Output are listed below.

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