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AMA 10th Referencing Guide: Book

Referencing guide for the 10th Edition for AMA Style

In text numbering

Superscript numbers

The numbers in text are in superscript1 and occur at the end of the clause in which you used the information.  They occur outside “quotation marks,”2 commas,3 (parentheses)4 and full stops.5 However, they occur inside semicolons6; and colons7:

Do not leave a space between the last letter or punctuation mark and the number.

Re-use numbers for the same citation

Citations should be numbered sequentially – that is, the first source you cite is 1, the second source is 2 and so on.

However, once you have given a source a number, it will keep that number throughout your paper. So, if you use your first source again, no matter how often you use it, it is still 1.

Citing more than one work at a time

Use commas to show that more than one work is being cited, and use hyphens for several works that would be numbered sequentially:

These side effects can have implications for the patient's mental health, as numerous studies have shown.1,3,6-9

Relationship between in-text citations and reference list

Your reference list follows the order of the numbers used in the text. The first source you cite in the text is 1 and the reader will look for number 1 in the reference list to find the full citation; the fifth source you use is 5 and the full citation is listed at number 5 in the reference list (and so on).

Using author's names in-text:

If including an author in the text of a sentence, use the surnames of authors and add the citation number after the author’s surname. 

  • For one or two authors list all names
    • Smith1 reported on the survey.
    • Smith and Watson2 reported on the survey.
  • For more than two authors list the first author and follow by et al
    • Smith et al3 reported on the survey. 

Books (whole book)

Use this if:

  • You are citing a book in which there is only one set of authors for the whole book (you do not need to cite individual chapters).
  • You are citing an edited book as a complete work - not the work of a particular chapter by a particular author.

You will need (minimum information in bold):

  • Author(s) or Editor(s) (if editors, include ed. or eds.)
  • Book title (in italics - in Title Case)
  • Volume number and title (if there is more than one volume).
  • Edition number (if it is not the first edition)
  • City of Publication and state abbreviation (if published in America) or country (if not published in America)
  • Publisher's name
  • Latest copyright year
  • DOI or URL (if online)
  • Accessed date (if online - only if using URL)


Standard book patterns:

Pay close attention to the punctuation used in these examples – including case, italics, the order of dates and spaces.

Standard book in Print:

Author AA, Author BB, Author CC. Book Title. Vol no. Nth ed. City, State abb. or Country:  Publisher; Year.

Edited book:

Editor AA, Editor BB, Editor CC, eds. Book Title. Vol no. Nth ed. City, State abb. or Country:  Publisher; Year.


Author AA, Author BB, Author CC. Book Title. Vol no. Nth ed. City, State abb. or Country:  Publisher; YearDOI or URL. Accessed Month DD, YYYY.


  1. Stone P, Curtis SJ. Pharmacy Practice. 3rd ed. London, England: Pharmaceutical Press; 2002.
  2. Laccetti MS, Kazanowski MK. Pain Management. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2009.
  3. Vadivelu N, Urman RD, Hines RL, eds. Essentials of Pain Management. New York, NY: Springer New York; 2011. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-87579-8_2.
  4. Urman RD, Vadivelu N, eds. Perioperative Pain Management. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press; 2013. Accessed November 25, 2013.
  5. Cancer Council Australia. Ideal Oncology Curriculum for Medical Schools: Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes of Medical Students at Graduation. Sydney, Australia: Cancer Council Australia. Accessed December 21, 2013.


  • Dates follow the American pattern of Month-Day-Year.
  • You only use the Accessed date if you are using a URL.
  • The author may be an organisation or government body.


What's a DOI?  Read this explanation from Citing Medicine.

Multiple Authors - Rules

If there are six authors/editors or less, include the names of all authors/editors.

If there are more than six authors/editors, include the first three names, then shorten with et al.

1.  Hallal AH, Amortegui JD, Jeroukhimov IM, et al. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography accurately detects common bile duct stones in resolving gallstone pancreatitis. J Am Coll Surg. 2005;200(6):869-75.

These rules also apply to editors, translators and other people who need to be cited for the source.

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