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APA (6th Edition) Referencing Guide

Referencing Guide based on the 6th Edition of APA style

Personal Communication

Personal communication is used for any information that is given to you "in person".

It covers sources such as (but not limited to):

  • A conversation or interview between you and your source
  • A copy of someone's notes given to you or sent to you, but not available to anyone else unless given or sent to them.
  • A personal email or letter
  • Any information sent via instant messaging or in a format that can only be seen by the person who sent it, and the person who received it.

If you aren't sure if what you have is personal communication, ask the following question:

"Can it be retrieved (that is, can anyone find it if they know where to look), or does it have to be given?"

Personal communication is not recorded in your reference list. You only refer to it in text.

For example:

...it is normally expected that the writer will consider the topic objectively (H. Hooper, personal communication, February 14, 2013).

As Scott Dale noted, Ray Bradbury is a male author (personal communication, February 9, 2018).

We acknowledge the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples as the first inhabitants of the nation and acknowledge Traditional Owners of the lands where our staff and students, live, learn and work.Acknowledgement of Country