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BA3000: Arts Edge Guide: Some Models of Reflection


The following models may help you with your Job Application Package or Case Study Analysis by providing guiding structure or questions to help you reflect upon your experiences completing your Bachelor of Arts degree.


Rolfe's reflective model

Johns' model for structured reflection

Looking in

  • Find a space to focus on self
  • Pay attention to your thoughts and emotions
  • Write down those thoughts and emotions that seem significant in realising desirable work.

Looking out

  • Write a description of the situation surrounding your thoughts and feelings.
  • What issues seem significant?


  • What was I trying to achieve?
  • Why did I respond as I did?
  • What were the consequences of that for the patient/others/myself?
  • How were others feeling?
  • How did I know this?


  • Why did I feel the way I did within this situation?


  • Did I act for the best? (ethical mapping)
  • What factors (either embodied within me or embedded within the environment) were influencing me?


  • What knowledge did or could have informed me?


  • Does this situation connect with previous experiences?
  • How could I handle this situation better?
  • What would be the consequences of alternative actions for the patient/others/myself?
  • How do I now feel about this experience?
  • Can I support myself and others better as a consequence?
  • How available am I to work with patients/families and staff to help them meet their needs?

Gibbs' reflective cycle

This model will assit you to think through each phase of your learning activity. Use each of these headings to structure your reflections.

Gibbs' reflective cycle

Image source: About Gibbs reflective cycle, Oxford Brooks University

Kaufman's doing sociology model

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