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Using Research Indicators

This guide provides information about indicators that can be used as a measure of research performance

Scholarly Output

Scholarly Output counts the number of research outputs, and include the following types:

  • Journal publications
  • Book series
  • Stand-alone books including edited volumes, anthologies, text books and reference works
  • Artefacts
  • Compositions
  • Designs
  • Devices and Products
  • Digital or visual media
  • Exhibitions
  • Internet publications
  • Performances
  • Reports, whether confidential, technical or commissioned
  • Software

Outputs of the following types are not counted as Scholarly Outputs:

  • Theses: Snowball Metrics will address theses as a separate post-graduate research output
  • Patents: these are counted as Intellectual Property

Scholarly Output is an indication of productivity. It is a useful metric for providing transparency when used in conjunction with size-normalised metrics such as citations per publication.

Scholarly Output will vary for the same research entity in different database sources. Comparisons should therefore only be made from a single source. See appropriate use of publication and citation metrics.

Recommended sources for calculating Scholarly Output are listed below.

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