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Tertiary Access Course Guide: In-text Referencing

In-text referencing

In-text references or citations allow you to attribute the authors and creators of ideas, images and other source types in the body of your assignment. In-text citations usually consist of the author's surname/s and the year of publication only. If you are using a direct quote, include the page number/s as well. The full details of the source should be included in the reference list.

How to write references in-text

There are different ways to reference sources in-text:

1. Paraphrase - Summarise and Synthesise

This is the better way and the method you will use most of the time. Lecturers and markers want to see that you understand key concepts and can explain them in your own words.

Smith and Jones (2016) argue that all dogs bark. 

All dogs bark (Smith & Jones, 2016).

All dogs bark, but cats do not (Smith & Jones, 2016;  Takata, 2005).

2. Direct word for word quote

Direct quotes should be used sparingly. You can include the direct quote in your own sentence so that it flows nicely and retains your own 'voice'. Include the page number/s in your in-text citation.

Smith and Jones (2016) states "100% of dogs barked at some point in the day, and occasionally I could hear them on the bridge next to my high school where I used to play footy" (pp. 26-28).

Recent research suggests "100% of dogs barked" (Smith & Jones, 2016, p. 26).

Smith and Jones (2016, p.26) states "100% of dogs barked", but Takata (2006, p. 156) discovered "cats only make the following sounds -  meow, purr, spit and hiss".

Is the author in the sentence?

1. Author as part of sentence - Combine author surnames with 'and'

Smith and Jones (2016) argues that all dogs bark. 

Smith and Jones (2016) states "100% of dogs barked" (p. 26).

2. Author not part of the sentence - Combine author surnames with '&'

All dogs bark (Smith & Jones, 2016).

Research shows "100% of dogs barked" (Smith & Jones, 2016, p. 26).

In-text citation using APA style

We acknowledge the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples as the first inhabitants of the nation and acknowledge Traditional Owners of the lands where our staff and students, live, learn and work.Acknowledgement of Country