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IEEE Referencing

About the IEEE number style system

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) referencing style is widely used for computing science, engineering and electronics and other technical related subjects.

The IEEE style is a numbered style where the numbers are included in-text in square brackets [1]. Numbers are assigned to references in order of use within a document and are next to the citation in the list of references which appear at the end of the document.

This style of referencing requires that you acknowledge the source of your information or ideas in two ways:

  • numbered in-text [1] citations, and
  • in a reference list at the end of your essay, which contains a full numbered list of all the references you have used.

IEEE referencing - Publication places and Journal abbreviations

Publication places

Cities that are well known may be cited without any additional information.

US states and territories are abbreviated in the reference list and follow the official two-letter U.S. Postal Service abbreviations.

US state abbreviations from Wikipedia.

Country names are included for less well known towns and cities located outside of the US.

Australian states may be abbreviated using standard Australia Post abbreviations.

Journal abbreviations

All journal titles are abbreviated according to IEEE standards.

Abbreviations for IEEE publications (Journals, Transactions, Letters and Magazines)

Abbreviations for common words (IEEE Editorial Style Manual)

Book Format

Authored Book

[#] A. A. Author, Title:Subtitle (in italics), Edition(if not the first), Vol.(if a multivolume work). Place of publication: Publisher, Year, page number(s). (if required)

Edited Book

[#] A. A. Editor, Ed., Title: Subtitle (in italics), Edition(if not the first), Vol.(if a multivolume work). Place of publication: Publisher, Year, page number(s). (if required)

(page numbers are only required if using a direct quote).

Reference List:

[1] M. K. Jain, S. R. K. Iyengar, and R. K. Jain, Numerical methods for scientific and engineering computation. New Delhi: New Age International, 1994, p. 5.

[2] D. Sarunyagate, Ed., Lasers. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

In-text citation:

It was stated in [1] that "the digital computer is divided into separate cells called words".

According to [2] lasers have been used for precision measurements.


Chapter from a Book Format

[#] A. A. Author (of the chapter), "Title of chapter or part," in Title: Subtitle of book, Edition, Vol., A. Editor, Ed. Place of publication: Publisher, Year, pp. (page numbers of chapter).

Reference List:

[3] Williams, A., "Building structures," in Civil engineering: Problems and solutions, 14th ed., D. G. Newnan, Ed. Chicago: Dearborn, 2004, 1-3.

Journal Article Format

[#] A. Author, "Title of Article," Title of Journal (abbreviated), vol., no., p. page numbers, month year. Accessed: (Abbrev.) Mth. Day, Year. doi: [Format]. Available from internet address.

Abbreviate the month to four or less letters  e.g. September will be Sept.  October will be Oct.

Reference List:

[4] R. Coleman, "Eliminate flotation bottlenecks," Eng and Mining J., vol. 217, no. 10, p. 52-54, Oct. 2016. Accessed: Sept. 15, 2016. [Online]. Available from



[#] A. Author, Webpage name, Source/production information, Date of internet publication. [Format]. Available from internet address.

Reference List:

[5] Engineers Australia, Graduate engineer, Engineers Australia, 2017. [Online]. Available from

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