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AMA 11th Referencing Guide

Referencing guide for the 11th Edition of AMA Style

Lecture notes

Online Lecture Notes:

If the notes/handouts are available online through LearnJCU, cite them as a web object. Include details after the title, if it is necessary for clarity.

Author AA, Author BB. Title of page or object. Title of web site. Published Month DD, YYYY. Updated Month DD, YYYY. Accessed Month DD, YYYY. URL.


  1. De Cat S. Introduction to TV1101. PDF lecture notes. LearnJCU. Updated February 18, 2014. Accessed March 2, 2014.
  2. TV1101 - week1: syringe and needle handling practical 1. PDF class handout. LearnJCU. Updated February, 2014. Accessed March 2, 2014.


  • Most lecturers would rather you did not cite the lecture notes, but found the relevant information in books, journals or other such resources. Only use lecture notes if you cannot find the information elsewhere.
  • Only include the full link to the document if a) you have tested the link and it will work several days after you originally accessed the document, and b) you are confident the person reading your work can access the site. Otherwise, simply include the URL for LearnJCU.
  • If there is no attributed author, begin the reference with the title of the document.

Note on URLs for LearnJCU:  Ideally, you use a URL that will get your readers as close as possible to the document.  When writing for someone who has access to the LearnJCU site, include the full URL for the document (copy and paste). Always include the date you last checked to see the URL still worked (the Accessed date).

Handouts given in class

If the work was given in class, and you have confirmed that the information has not been copied from a published source (book, journal article, web page etc), treat it as personal communicationDo not include it in your reference list, and in text explain the nature of your source in brackets:


According to a diagram distributed by M. Grant (class handout, February 2020)...

The Cornell Method template (K. Bartlett, class handout, March 21, 2020) can be used to analyse and compare journal articles.


Class handouts are often copied or taken from other sources.  Endeavour to find the original source, if possible.

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