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AMA Referencing Guide: Sample Reference List

Referencing style guide for AMA Style

In text numbering

Superscript numbers

The numbers in text are in superscript1 and occur at the end of the clause in which you used the information.  They occur outside “quotation marks,”2 commas,3 (parentheses)4 and full stops.5 However, they occur inside semicolons6; and colons7:

Do not leave a space between the last letter or punctuation mark and the number.

Re-use numbers for the same citation

Citations should be numbered sequentially – that is, the first source you cite is 1, the second source is 2 and so on.

However, once you have given a source a number, it will keep that number throughout your paper. So, if you use your first source again, no matter how often you use it, it is still 1.

Citing more than one work at a time

Use commas to show that more than one work is being cited, and use hyphens for several works that would be numbered sequentially:

These side effects can have implications for the patient's mental health, as numerous studies have shown.1,3,6-9

Relationship between in-text citations and reference list

Your reference list follows the order of the numbers used in the text. The first source you cite in the text is 1 and the reader will look for number 1 in the reference list to find the full citation; the fifth source you use is 5 and the full citation is listed at number 5 in the reference list (and so on).

Using author's names in-text:

If including an author in the text of a sentence, use the surnames of authors and add the citation number after the author’s surname. 

  • For one or two authors list all names
    • Smith1 reported on the survey.
    • Smith and Watson2 reported on the survey.
  • For more than two authors list the first author and follow by et al
    • Smith et al3 reported on the survey. 

Sample Reference List

Reference lists are in numerical order, based on the order in which the sources were first cited in your assignment.

The AMA style guide does not give specific instructions for the layout of the reference list, but the following advice is based on the formatting of reference lists in both the style guide and the journals published by the JAMA family.

Do not begin the reference list on a new page, but place it at the end of your document, after a space or a line.  It follows any article information or acknowledgments.  Put the word "References" in all caps, and in line with the left-hand margin.  Format the numbers as per normal numbering style within Word (or similar programmes).

Sample Reference List:

 

REFERENCES

  1. Economopoulos KJ, Brockmeier SF. Rotator cuff tears in overhead athletes. Clin Sports Med. 2012;31(4):675-692.
  2. Fikremariam D, Serafini M. Multidisciplinary approach to pain management. In: Vadivelu N, Urman RD, Hines RL, eds. Essentials of Pain Management. New York, NY: Springer New York; 2011:17-28. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-87579-8_2.
  3. Lenza M, Buchbinder R, Christensen R, Hanchard Nigel CA, Faloppa F. Magnetic resonance imaging versus ultrasonography for assessing rotator cuff tears in patients with shoulder pain for whom surgery is being considered. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2011;(3):CD009020. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009020.
  4. Queensland Health. Food safety fact sheet 51: Food allergies. Queensland Health website. http://www.health.qld.gov.au/foodsafety/Documents/fs-51-allergies.pdf. Published 2013. Accessed January 12, 2014.
  5. Shaparin N, Shah A, Gritsenko K. Pharmacological agents: opioids. In: Urman RD, Vadivelu N, eds. Perioperative Pain Management. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press; 2013:29-37. http://jcu.eblib.com.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1274300. Accessed November 25, 2012.
  6. Finnan RP, Crosby LA. Partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2010;19(4):609-616. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1058274609004662. Accessed April 26, 2012.
  7. Laccetti MS, Kazanowski MK. Pain Management. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2009.
  8. Vadivelu N, Urman RD, Hines RL, eds. Essentials of Pain Management. New York, NY: Springer New York; 2011. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-87579-8_2.
  9. Dog TL. Botanicals in the management of pain. In: Audette JF, Bailey A, eds. Contemporary Pain Medicine: Integrative Pain Medicine: the Science and Practice of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Pain Management. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2008:447-470.
  10. State Government of Victoria. Anaphylaxis. Better Health Channel. http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Anaphylaxis. Updated July 16, 2013. Accessed January 8, 2014.

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