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Referencing: MLA 7th

This Guide contains or links to guidance for the main referencing styles used at JCU, and general information about referencing

In-text citations - MLA

For MLA when you quote or paraphrase a specific portion of a text in a source, give enough information, most typically the author's last name and the page number, to identify the exact location of the borrowed material. 


  • This argument has been developed elsewhere (Reynolds 67-69).
  • Reynolds develops this argument (67-69).

Want to know more, have a look at the links below: 

Books @ JCU

A selection of books available in our Library.

About MLA style

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the arts and humanities. These examples reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed.). See the links to the left for copies in our collection.

Referencing with MLA 7th edition

From a book

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.


Zelizer, Barbie, and Stuart Allan, eds.  Journalism after September 11. London: Routledge, 2002.  Print.

Baker, Nancy L., and Nancy Huling. A Research Guide for Undergraduate Students: English and American Literature. 6th ed. New York: MLA, 2006. Print.

From an eBook

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. edition. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Source/supplier of eBook. Medium of Publication. Date of access.


Zelizer, Barbie, and Stuart Allan, eds.  Journalism after September 11. 2nd ed. London: Routledge, 2011.  EBL Ebook Library. Web. 22 Mar. 2012.

A chapter from a book

Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection. Ed. Editor's Name(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page range of entry. Medium of Publication.


Sinclair, Upton. “The Brass Check.” The Journalist’s Moral Compass: Basic Principles. Eds. Steven R. Knowlton, and Patrick R. Parsons. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1995. 184-190. Print.

From a print journal article

Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume.Issue (Year): pages. Medium of publication.


Martin, Greg. “Subculture, Style, Chavs and Consumer Capitalism: Towards a Critical Cultural Criminology of Youth.” Crime, Media, Culture 5.2 (2009): 123-145. Print.

From an electronic journal article

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume.Issue (Year): pages. Medium of publication. Date accessed.


 Morreale, Joanne. “The Spectacle of the Prisoner.” Television & New Media 7.2 (2006): 216-226. Web. 12 April 2010.

From a website

Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available). Medium of publication. Date of access.


CIA World Fact Book. Central Intelligence Agency, 2009. Web. 10 April 2010.

From a print newspaper

ReporterLastname, ReporterFirstname. "Title of article."  Title of Newspaper DD Month YYYY: page number. Format.


Lawlor, Anne. "Phoenician 'find' makes textbooks ancient history." The Courier Mail 20 July 2000: 3. Print.

From a newspaper website

ReporterLastname, ReporterFirstname. "Title of Article." Newspaper Title DD Month YYYY. Format. Access DD Month YYYY.


Nicholson, Brendan. "Row over 'biblical' weapons in Afghanistan." The Australian 22 January 2010. Web. 22 March 2010.

From a government publication

If the author is a government body:

Dept. Name. Name of Section if Relevant. Title of Document. Place of Publication: Publisher, YYYY. Format. Date of Access if online.

 If author is a person:

Lastname, Firstname. Name of Section if Relevant. Title of Document. Place of Publication: Publisher, YYYY. Format. Date of Access if online.


Great Britain. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food.  Our Countryside, the Future: A Fair Deal for Rural England. London: HMSO, 2000. Print

Hodgen, Gary. Livestock Movement. Conditions of entry of cattle and buffalo in relation to tick in Western Australia. Perth: Government of Western Australia, 2007. Web. 14 March 2011.

From a lecture or speech:

SpeakerLastname, SpeakerFirstname. "Title of Lecture." Name of Seminar or Meeting. Adress of Seminar or Meeting. DD Month. YYYY. Format.


Matuozzi, Robert. "Archive Trauma." Archive Trouble.  MLA Annual Convention. Hyatt Regency, Chicago. 29 Dec. 2007. Address.

Hooper, Helen. "Finding Academic Information and Evaluating Websites." Time Truth and the Human Condition. BA1001. James Cook University. 8 March 2012. Lecture.

From a film

For Film, if you are referencing the entire film, structure the reference with the title first. If you are citing the contribution of a particular person, begin with the name of that person.

Title. Dir. Firstname Lastname. Prod. Lastname, Initial. Distributor, year of release. Medium consulted. 

nb. medium could be film or DVD or television or videocassette.


You can count on me. Dir. Ken Lonergan. Prod. Scorsese, M. Paramount Pictures, 2000. Film.

It's a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Steward, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell. 1946. Republic, 2001. DVD

Scorsese, Martin, prod. You can count on me. Dir. Ken Lonergan. Paramount Pictures, 2000. Film.

From a lecture (live)

Lastname, Firstname and Firstname Lastname. "Title of Lecture." Title of Conference or Programme (if applicable). Location of Lecture.  Date of lecture.  Medium consulted.

nb. medium could be Lecture or Address, for example.


Bryan, Sharon and Helen Hooper. “Reference Points.” Writing the Assignment. James Cook University, Townsville, QLD. 27 Feb. 2011. Lecture.

Craven, Allison. "EL2047 Introduction to Children's Literature." James Cook University, Townsville,QLD. 24 Feb. 2011. Lecture.

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