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Referencing: Citing Medicine (Vancouver)

This guide will help you identify and use the correct referencing style to ensure clear & consistent presentation of written material.

Which version of Vancouver does JCU use?

The version of Vancouver used by the School of Medicine and Dentistry and the School of Pharmacy and Molecular Sciences is AMA (  Individual subjects or assignments may require the Citing Medicine style of Vancouver.

Check with your lecturer.

About Vancouver style (Citing Medicine)

Vancouver is the primary referencing sytem used in the Biomedical Sciences - the two major versions of Vancouver are AMA (see our guide) and Citing Medicine. There are minor variations between the two.  The links on this page will assist you with using the Citing Medicine version of Vancouver.

Vancouver is a documentary note system, which means in text references are represented by a number, and the references are ordered numerically in footnotes or endnotes.

For example:

(In text)

Brown determined that "oral story reading constituted a considerable source of vocabulary acquisition, whether or not the reading was accompanied by teacher explanation of word meanings."1  Reading aloud is considered a highly useful extensive reading activity,2 and should be considered as part of any guided reading activity.

(In endnote/reference list)

1.    Brown R, Waring R, Donkaewbua S. Incidental vocabulary acquisition from reading, reading-while-listening, and listening to stories. Reading in a Foreign Language. 2008;20(2):136-63.
2.    Bamford J, Day RR, editors. Extensive reading activities for teaching language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2004.

Numbers used for in text citation may be in brackets (1), or may be superscript1, but must be consistant throughout.

Vancouver style guide

The information contained in this guide has been adapted from:

Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Oct 21; cited 2010 May 31]. Available from:


Head On Vancouver

Head On Vancouver by ecstaticist

NLM Guides

Other Vancouver guides

You can find other recommended guides for the Vancouver style here:

Vancouver Quick Sheet

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