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Harvard Referencing (AGSM)

Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style, as used by Australian Government bodies

Personal Communication

Personal communication only require an in-text citation and are not included in your reference list.

Format (personal communication, Day Month Year)
Example Helen Hooper (personal communication, 14 February 2013) wrote . . .

What are personal communications?

Personal communication is used for any information that is given to you "in person".

It covers sources such as (but not limited to):

  • A conversation or interview between you and your source
  • A copy of someone's notes given to you or sent to you, but not available to anyone else unless given or sent to them.
  • A personal email or letter
  • Any information sent via instant messaging or in a format that can only be seen by the person who sent it, and the person who received it.

If you aren't sure if what you have is personal communication, ask the following question:

"Can it be retrieved (that is, can anyone find it if they know where to look), or does it have to be given?"

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Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA) 4.0 International License. Content from this Guide should be attributed to James Cook University Library. This does not apply to images, third party material (seek permission from the original owner) or any logos or insignia belonging to JCU or other bodies, which remain All Rights Reserved.