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APA (7th Edition) Referencing Guide

Guide to APA citation style using the 7th Edition of the APA Style Manual.

Using and referring to AI software

Content generated by Artificial Intelligence (AI) software is an evolving field, and APA's official advice is still being developed and debated. The following advice is interim advice given by the APA Style Experts, and is subject to change. Please check back to see if the advice has changed.

This is the advice as of April 13, 2023:

This advice is for content produced by Generative Artificial Intelligence tools like ChatGPT, in which the material is not recoverable (that is, the person reading your paper cannot find the material using the referencing details).

As ChatGPT (and similar tools) produce material that is not recoverable, you cannot cite the material itself - but since it is not information communicated to you by a person, you cannot treat it as personal communication.

Instead, make a reference in the text to the use of the software, and then cite the software. If using content generated by the software, use quotation marks or a block quote as you would for any other quoted text.


In Text:

ChatGPT was used to summarise the results of the articles, and found there was "no statistically significant difference between the two methods" (OpenAI, 2023).

In the Reference List:

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

Example of text-image generation:

In Text:

Image of robot holding a flower generated using Midjourney (2023).

In the Reference List:

Midjourney. (2023). Midjourney (V5) [Text-to-image model].

Citing Bing Chat

This information our FAQ regarding the Bing Chat search engine. As other search engines adopt the use of AI language models, you will be able to find similar information to cite them in a similar, way, if needed. Remember, a search engine is not a preferred source of information (just a tool for finding sources of information) and you should click on the links to find the sources, rather than citing the search engine.

JCU's advice regarding the use of AI

The Center for Education and Enhancement at JCU has prepared a suite of material and advice regarding the use of AI programs such as ChatGPT.

You can find their resources here:

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Creative Commons Licence
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA) 4.0 International License. Content from this Guide should be attributed to James Cook University Library. This does not apply to images, third party material (seek permission from the original owner) or any logos or insignia belonging to JCU or other bodies, which remain All Rights Reserved.