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APA (7th Edition) Referencing Guide

Guide to APA citation style using the 7th Edition of the APA Style Manual. This guide is in Beta mode, and some links and pages will become available shortly.

Check With Your Lecturer

This is a guide to the 7th Edition of APA style, which is a recent update to the APA citation style.

Your lecturer may prefer APA 6th Edition. Check your subject outline to see which version of APA you have been asked to use. If the subject outline does not specify which APA edition you should be using, please check with your lecturer.

If you are supposed to use APA 6th Edition, please go to the APA (6th Edition) Referencing Guide:

Lecture Notes and Handouts (online)

Lecture notes or class handouts distributed through LearnJCU:


For a downloadable file, like a PowerPoint or PDF:

Author, A.A. (Date). Subject code: Title of subject; week x notes (or title of notes) [Format]. LearnJCU.

For lecture notes in html/web page form (e.g. notes that are LearnJCU pages):

Author, A.A. (Date). Subject code: Title of subject; week x notes (or title of notes). LearnJCU.


Hardy, D. (2016). CP1403: Design thinking; interpretation and define problem [PowerPoint file]. LearnJCU.

Bryan, S. (2017). CS1022: Learning in a digital environment; week 6 lecture notes [PDF]. LearnJCU.

Frogmouth, T. (2018). XX1001: X-ray vision; Week 1 learning plan. LearnJCU.

Class Hand-Outs (physical)

Strictly speaking, any material that is only available in person (as in, you had to be in class in order to have this material handed to you, or it was sent via email) is regarded as personal communication, and should be cited as such.

However, if you believe the hand-out is essential course material and your lecturer would expect you to cite it just like you would cite something uploaded to LearnJCU, you can use the following format:

Printed material distributed in class:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Subject code: Title of subject; Title of handout [Format]. Publisher.
Frogmouth, T., & Spoonbill, Y. B. (2013). PY1011: Exploring psychology; Psychopaths [Class handout]. Department of Psychology, James Cook University.

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