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APA (7th Edition) Referencing Guide

Guide to APA citation style using the 7th Edition of the APA Style Manual.

Lecture notes and handouts (online)

Lecture notes or class handouts distributed through LearnJCU:


For a downloadable file, like a PowerPoint or PDF:

Author, A.A. (Date). Subject code: Title of subject: Week x notes (or title of notes) [Format]. LearnJCU.

For lecture notes in html/web page form (e.g. notes that are LearnJCU pages):

Author, A.A. (Date). Subject code: Title of subject: Week x notes (or title of notes). LearnJCU.


Hardy, D. (2016). CP1403: Design thinking: Interpretation and define problem [PowerPoint file]. LearnJCU.

Bryan, S. (2017). CS1022: Learning in a digital environment: Week 6 lecture notes [PDF]. LearnJCU.

Frogmouth, T. (2018). XX1001: X-ray vision: Week 1 learning plan. LearnJCU.

Class hand-outs (physical)

Strictly speaking, any material that is only available in person (as in, you had to be in class in order to have this material handed to you, or it was sent via email) is regarded as personal communication, and should be cited as such.

However, if you believe the hand-out is essential course material and your lecturer would expect you to cite it just like you would cite something uploaded to LearnJCU, you can use the following format:

Printed material distributed in class:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Subject code: Title of subject: Title of handout [Format]. Publisher.
Frogmouth, T., & Spoonbill, Y. B. (2013). PY1011: Exploring psychology: Psychopaths [Class handout]. Department of Psychology, James Cook University.

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Creative Commons Licence
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA) 4.0 International License. Content from this Guide should be attributed to James Cook University Library. This does not apply to images, third party material (seek permission from the original owner) or any logos or insignia belonging to JCU or other bodies, which remain All Rights Reserved.