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APA (7th Edition) Referencing Guide

Guide to APA citation style using the 7th Edition of the APA Style Manual.

Using works of First Nations peoples

First Nations peoples have rich cultures, histories and ways of knowing that enhance the world in so many ways. First Nations authors, creators and communities are therefore due the respect of correct attribution when their works are utilised by others.

First Nations peoples of Australia identify according to their own specific nation, country, language group. They may also include other descents e.g., South Sea Islander and/or their traditional language name. When referencing a First Nations author or creator:

  • Ask yourself: "Should I be using/sharing this work?"
  • Identify the standard format for the source type
  • Add acknowledgment of the creator's distinct First Nations cultural heritage (Nation/Country/Language Group).

Visit AIATSIS for more information on terminology.

In-text citations

When referring to an Elder in-text, it is appropriate to use the terms Uncle and Aunty. They are terms of respect and indicate Elder status. Follow their title with Nation/Country and/or Language group information.

In-Text Citations

Formats

Uncle/Aunty Preferred Name, Nation/Country/Language group, explained the significance of songlines to the local community (Author  & Author, YYYY).

Songlines are significant for the local community (Author & Author, YYYY).

Standard pattern for reference acknowledgment

The standard pattern for acknowledging First Nations status is following the author's name with the author's Nation, Country and/or Language group.

Books

Format

Author, A. A. (Nation/Country/Language group), & Author, B. B. (Nation/Country/Language group). (Date). Title in sentence case: Subtitle (edition, if not the first). Publisher. URL or DOI (if electronic)

Example

Janke, T. (Meriam & Wuthathi). (2021). True tracks: Respecting Indigenous knowledge and culture. NewSouth Publishing. 


Chapter from an Edited Book

Format

Author, A. A. (Nation/Country/Language group). (Date). Title of chapter: Subtitle. In A. Editor (Nation/Country/Language group) & B. Editor (Nation/Country/Language Group) (Eds.), Title of book: Subtitle (edition*, pages of chapter). Publisher. DOI or URL (if electronic)

*if not the first edition - do not include edition information for first editions.

Example

McAvoy, T. (Wirdi). (2016). Building our house. In M. Davis (Cobble Cobble) & M.J. Langton (Yiman & Bidjara) (Eds.), It’s our country: Indigenous arguments for meaningful constitutional recognition and reform (pp. 42-47). Melbourne University Press.


Books Where Creators Play Specific Roles

Format

Creator, C. C. (Nation/Country/Language group) (Role). (Date). Title of book: Subtitle. Publisher. DOI or URL (if electronic)

Example

Tutt, C. (Kamilaroi, Author), & Hill, A. (Wiradjuri, Illustrator). (2021). The first scientists. Hardie Grant Publishing.


Journal Article 

Format

Author, A. A. (Nation/Country/Language group), & Author, B. B. (Nation/Country/Language group). (Date). Title of article: Subtitle. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), Article number, page numbers of the whole article. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/xxxx

Example

Marika, R. (Yolngu), Yunupingu, Y. (Yolngu, Rirratjingu & Yirrkala), Marika-Mununggiritj, R. (Yolngu), & Muller, S. (2009). Leaching the poison–the importance of process and partnership in working with Yolngu. Journal of Rural Studies, 25(4), 404-413. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2009.05.007

Reference list examples

Single First Nations Author Examples

Geia, L. (Bwgcolman). (2012). First steps, making footprints: Intergenerational Palm Island families Indigenous stories (narratives) of childrearing practice strengths [PhD thesis]. James Cook University.

Janke, T. (Meriam & Wuthathi). (2021). True tracks: Respecting Indigenous knowledge and culture. NewSouth Publishing. 

Watego, C. (Mununjali Yugambeh & South Sea Islander). (2021). Another day in the colony. University of Queensland Press.


Two or More First Nations Authors or Editors

McAvoy, T. (Wirdi). (2016). Building our house. In M. Davis (Cobble Cobble) & M.J. Langton (Yiman & Bidjara). (Eds.), It’s our country: Indigenous arguments for meaningful constitutional recognition and reform (pp. 42-47). Melbourne University Press.


First Nations Authors Publishing with Non-Indigenous Authors

Biles, B. (Murrawarri) & Biles, J. (2019). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in healthcare. Oxford University Press. 

Redman-MacLaren, M., Turner, N. N. (Anmatyerre & Jaru)., Taylor, J., Laycock, A., Vine, K., Thompson, Q. (Gurindji), Larkins, S., Carlisle, K., Thompson, S., Bailie, R., & Matthew, V. (Quandamooka). (2021, July 16). Respect is central: A critical review of implanting frameworks for continuous quality improvement in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care services. Frontiers in Public Health, 9, Article 630611, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.630611    

Personal communication, oral teachings and storytelling (yarning methodology)

Personal communication is used for any information that is given to you 'in person'. To recognise oral communication from an Elder or Knowledge Keeper within text, the APA format to follow is Personal Communication.

When referring to an Elder in-text, it is appropriate to use the terms Uncle and Aunty. They are terms of respect and indicate Elder status.

Personal communication is not recorded in your reference list. You only refer to it in text.


Personal Communications for Individuals

Formats

We spoke with Uncle/Aunty Preferred Names (Nation/Country/Language Group) and Uncle/Aunty Preferred Names (Nation/Country/Language Group) (personal communication*, Month DD, YYYY) who shared that...

...was considered deeply significant (Preferred Names, Nation/Country/Language Group, personal communication*, Month DD, YYYY).

Personal Communications for Groups or Organisations

Formats

We spoke with Organisation Name. (Nation/Country/Language Group) (personal communication*, Month DD, YYYY) who shared that...

...was considered deeply significant (Organisation Name, Nation/Country/Language Group, personal communication*, Month DD, YYYY).

*If the communication was recieved via a yarning circle or sharing session (a common method used by First Nataions peoples for communicating) use yarning circle instead of personal communication.

Sharing your lived experience

If you are a First Nations person sharing your own experiences (this includes the Nation, Country, Language Group or Community where you live and belong), you don’t need to include an in-text citation or reference list entry.

Express yourself in detail in the body of your text to conceptualise the information you are sharing.

What if?

What if a First Nations author has more than two language groups, country or nation?

Where a First Nation's author identifies with more than two nation, country or language groups, follow same format as above and include a comma between each followed by an ampersand (&) between the second last and last.

Format

Author, A. A. (Nation/Country/Language group, Nation/Country/Language group & Nation/Country/Language group). 

Example

Ropeyarn, Y. (Angkamuthi, Yadhaykana, Woppaurra & Meriam). (2022). Referencing Indigenous peoples knowledge APA style. James Cook University Library. hhttps://www.jcu.edu.au/library/xxxx

We acknowledge the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples as the first inhabitants of the nation and acknowledge Traditional Owners of the lands where our staff and students, live, learn and work.Acknowledgement of Country

Creative Commons Licence
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA) 4.0 International License. Content from this Guide should be attributed to James Cook University Library. This does not apply to images, third party material (seek permission from the original owner) or any logos or insignia belonging to JCU or other bodies, which remain All Rights Reserved.

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