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APA (7th Edition) Referencing Guide

Guide to APA citation style using the 7th Edition of the APA Style Manual.

Standard journal article with a DOI



Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of article: Subtitle. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers of the whole article.


Alam, K., & Imran, S. (2015). The digital divide and social inclusion among refugee migrants: A case in regional Australia. Information Technology & People, 28(2), 344-365.

Smith, R. P., Easson, C., Lyle, S. M., Kapoor, R., Donnelly, C. P., Davidson, E. J., Parikh, E., Lopez, J. V., & Tartar, J. L. (2019). Gut microbiome diversity is associated with sleep physiology in humans. PLOS ONE, 14(10), Article e0222394.

Standard journal article without DOI

Journal article from a Database:


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of article: Subtitle. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), Article number, page numbers of the whole article.


Kingston, B. (1994). Women in nineteenth century Australian history. Labour History, (67), 84-96.

MacWilliams, B. R., Schmidt, B., & Bleich, M. R. (2013). Men in nursing. The American Journal of Nursing, 113(1), 38-46. 

Journal article from the Web:


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of article: Subtitle. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), Article number, page numbers of the whole article (if available). URL of the article


Dean, A., & Green, D. (2018). Climate change, air pollution and human health in Sydney, Australia: A review of the literature. Environmental Research Letters, 13(5).

Rawlings, D. & Devery, K. (2018). Does studying postgraduate palliative care have an impact on student’s ability to effect change in practice? Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 36(1), 16-24.

General notes on journals

Refer to the Authors page for guidance on referencing articles depending on the number of authors.

Do not include a URL for a journal article only available within an academic research database.

Give only the year for the date (but note that other types of periodicals, such as Newspapers, have different date requirements).

Notes on volume, issue, page and article numbers

No volume or issue number

Not all journals will have both a volume and an issue numbers. If this information is unavailable, skip it and move to the next part of the pattern. Keep the formatting for the parts of the pattern that you do have. For example, if you only have a volume number, it should be in italics; if you only have an issue number, it should be in (brackets).

Prinsloo, C. (2018). Students’ intrinsic perspectives on the diverse functions of short stories beyond language learning. System, 74, 87-97.

Article numbers

Some online only journals have article numbers. Often, these journals start every article at page 1, so page numbers are irrelevant. For journals with article numbers, put the article number in the place of the page numbers, after the word "Article":

Kitts-Morgan, S. E., Caires, K. C., Bohannon, L. A., Parsons, E. I., & Hilburn, K. A. (2015). Free-ranging farm cats: Home range size and predation on a livestock unit in northwest Georgia. PLoS ONE, 10(4), Article e0120513.

Special page numbers

If your page number contains letters (such as S12-S23 or A118-A125) write the page numbers exactly as they appear on the page - including the letters - both in text and in your reference list.

Kruger, D. J., Fisher, M. L., Strout, S. L., Clark, S., Lewis, S., & Wehbe, M. (2014). Pride and prejudice or family and flirtation? Jane Austen's depiction of women's mating strategies. Philosophy and Literature, 38(1), A114-A128.

A note on DOIs and URLs

Present both DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks (i.e., beginning with "http://" or "https://"). Links should be live if the work is to be published or read online.

The current format to be used for DOIs is: "", eg.

Do not place a full stop after the DOI or URL.

APA prefers short DOIs and URLs. If you need to shorten the DOI, use the short DOI service as only one short DOI is created for a particular DOI. If you need to shorten a URL, any URL shortening service that links to the correct resource is acceptable, eg. Bitly URL Shortener.‚Äč

Never use a URL like this: NsFnofUp91z6MDZximrjJULvmHuVZsbMJ8xN6FAl950s5TTFwXx9FS33aVsdKWIe65DrVuf5qXs901BjeNUnimliEafWYEVEMqKuDned52mAQZRtSPAHSIwiyuH5E3ZeZKJLc9vbgDHZyY-dg307nE3emSvo-A_r2IT1CqKyzkintmDJ59uw_1A5Ngt2wh4mtZiLHbjs_nwM2LjKrS8u2L3JPSMnis9P2aP5Rh1_ 96fM5I6VfTZQ5Vm3IObVLrz1uq83t82qJUPTIk4QTU14S2WKqzDKNF43TGxdW7cNVyYN2- cms-fSUAUfbdppLCJ8HZ9OeeVQ1DzagzVD1P18UKb4uQNgPHJa6VRnwqUyxYlEppRTkRIG8QiXARzPb01iKCaTvJQebbzPBbBPsk3oSOJibTKRaACN8e7hR-Q7soMioYpBIdVREwHUJ-PV2aVhBC1aCikOF058BKuInOTIF1OH5cH30DeghjrwC61y4bM

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Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA) 4.0 International License. Content from this Guide should be attributed to James Cook University Library. This does not apply to images, third party material (seek permission from the original owner) or any logos or insignia belonging to JCU or other bodies, which remain All Rights Reserved.