Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of article: Subtitle. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers of the whole article. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/xxxx
Alam, K., & Imran, S. (2015). The digital divide and social inclusion among refugee migrants: A case in regional Australia. Information Technology & People, 28(2), 344-365. https://doi.org/10.1108/ITP-04-2014-0083
Smith, R. P., Easson, C., Lyle, S. M., Kapoor, R., Donnelly, C. P., Davidson, E. J., Parikh, E., Lopez, J. V., & Tartar, J. L. (2019). Gut microbiome diversity is associated with sleep physiology in humans. PLOS ONE, 14(10), Article e0222394. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222394
Journal article from a Database:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of article: Subtitle. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), Article number, page numbers of the whole article.
Kingston, B. (1994). Women in nineteenth century Australian history. Labour History, (67), 84-96.
MacWilliams, B. R., Schmidt, B., & Bleich, M. R. (2013). Men in nursing. The American Journal of Nursing, 113(1), 38-46.
Journal article from the Web:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of article: Subtitle. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), Article number, page numbers of the whole article (if available). URL of the article
Dean, A., & Green, D. (2018). Climate change, air pollution and human health in Sydney, Australia: A review of the literature. Environmental Research Letters, 13(5). https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aac02a
Rawlings, D., & Devery, K. (2018). Does studying postgraduate palliative care have an impact on student’s ability to effect change in practice? Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 36(1), 16-24. http://www.ajan.com.au/Vol36/Issue1/2Rawlings.pdf
Refer to the Authors page for guidance on referencing articles depending on the number of authors.
Do not include a URL for a journal article only available within an academic research database.
Give only the year for the date (but note that other types of periodicals, such as Newspapers, have different date requirements).
No volume or issue number
Not all journals will have both a volume and an issue numbers. If this information is unavailable, skip it and move to the next part of the pattern. Keep the formatting for the parts of the pattern that you do have. For example, if you only have a volume number, it should be in italics; if you only have an issue number, it should be in (brackets).
Prinsloo, C. (2018). Students’ intrinsic perspectives on the diverse functions of short stories beyond language learning. System, 74, 87-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2018.02.019
Some online only journals have article numbers. Often, these journals start every article at page 1, so page numbers are irrelevant. For journals with article numbers, put the article number in the place of the page numbers, after the word "Article":
Kitts-Morgan, S. E., Caires, K. C., Bohannon, L. A., Parsons, E. I., & Hilburn, K. A. (2015). Free-ranging farm cats: Home range size and predation on a livestock unit in northwest Georgia. PLoS ONE, 10(4), Article e0120513. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120513
Special page numbers
If your page number contains letters (such as S12-S23 or A118-A125) write the page numbers exactly as they appear on the page - including the letters - both in text and in your reference list.
Kruger, D. J., Fisher, M. L., Strout, S. L., Clark, S., Lewis, S., & Wehbe, M. (2014). Pride and prejudice or family and flirtation? Jane Austen's depiction of women's mating strategies. Philosophy and Literature, 38(1), A114-A128. https://doi.org/10.1353/phl.2014.0029
Present both DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks (i.e., beginning with "http://" or "https://"). Links should be live if the work is to be published or read online.
The current format to be used for DOIs is: "https://doi.org/", eg. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0040251
Do not place a full stop after the DOI or URL.
APA prefers short DOIs and URLs. If you need to shorten the DOI, use the short DOI service http://shortdoi.org as only one short DOI is created for a particular DOI. If you need to shorten a URL, any URL shortening service that links to the correct resource is acceptable, eg. Bitly URL Shortener.
Never use a URL like this:
http://jcu.summon.serialssolutions.com/2.0.0/link/0/eLvHCXMwrV1LT8MwDLYYXJAQ70dhQzlxYixpw9KAEJrQJkA8JATnKk1SxA4F0U3i52N33QtpNy69pI0Ux3G_2J9tgCg8480_ NsFnofUp91z6MDZximrjJULvmHuVZsbMJ8xN6FAl950s5TTFwXx9FS33aVsdKWIe65DrVuf5qXs901BjeNUnimliEafWYEVEMqKuDned52mAQZRtSPAHSIwiyuH5E3ZeZKJLc9vbgDHZyY-dg307nE3emSvo-A_r2IT1CqKyzkintmDJ59uw_1A5Ngt2wh4mtZiLHbjs_nwM2LjKrS8u2L3JPSMnis9P2aP5Rh1_ 96fM5I6VfTZQ5Vm3IObVLrz1uq83t82qJUPTIk4QTU14S2WKqzDKNF43TGxdW7cNVyYN2- cms-fSUAUfbdppLCJ8HZ9OeeVQ1DzagzVD1P18UKb4uQNgPHJa6VRnwqUyxYlEppRTkRIG8QiXARzPb01iKCaTvJQebbzPBbBPsk3oSOJibTKRaACN8e7hR-Q7soMioYpBIdVREwHUJ-PV2aVhBC1aCikOF058BKuInOTIF1OH5cH30DeghjrwC61y4bM
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