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APA (7th Edition) Referencing Guide

Guide to APA citation style using the 7th Edition of the APA Style Manual.

Check with your lecturer

This is a guide to the 7th Edition of APA style, which is a recent update to the APA citation style.

Your lecturer may prefer APA 6th Edition. Check your subject outline to see which version of APA you have been asked to use. If the subject outline does not specify which APA edition you should be using, please check with your lecturer.

If you are supposed to use APA 6th Edition, please go to the APA (6th Edition) Referencing Guide:

Standard journal article with a DOI



Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of article: Subtitle. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers of the whole article.


Alam, K., & Imran, S. (2015). The digital divide and social inclusion among refugee migrants: A case in regional Australia. Information Technology & People, 28(2), 344-365.

Smith, R. P., Easson, C., Lyle, S. M., Kapoor, R., Donnelly, C. P., Davidson, E. J., Parikh, E., Lopez, J. V., & Tartar, J. L. (2019). Gut microbiome diversity is associated with sleep physiology in humans. PLOS ONE, 14(10), Article e0222394.

Standard journal article without DOI

Journal article from a Database:


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of article: Subtitle. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), Article number, page numbers of the whole article.


Kingston, B. (1994). Women in nineteenth century Australian history. Labour History, (67), 84-96.

MacWilliams, B. R., Schmidt, B., & Bleich, M. R. (2013). Men in nursing. The American Journal of Nursing, 113(1), 38-46. 

Journal article from the Web:


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of article: Subtitle. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), Article number, page numbers of the whole article (if available). URL of the article


Dean, A., & Green, D. (2018). Climate change, air pollution and human health in Sydney, Australia: A review of the literature. Environmental Research Letters, 13(5).

Rawlings, D. & Devery, K. (2018). Does studying postgraduate palliative care have an impact on student’s ability to effect change in practice? Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 36(1), 16-24.

General notes on journals

Refer to the Authors page for guidance on referencing articles depending on the number of authors.

Dates (updated 20/11/2020): APA have clarified that journals should only use the year. Previously, the advice in the manual could be interpreted to say that frequently published periodicals required as much detail as possible to assist with identifying the correct work, and some journals are published daily, so we advised that both date formats (only the year, or a full date) would be acceptable and correct (although only the year was required).

Do not include a URL for a journal article only available within an academic research database.

Notes on volume, issue, page and article numbers

No volume or issue number

Not all journals will have both a volume and an issue numbers. If this information is unavailable, skip it and move to the next part of the pattern. Keep the formatting for the parts of the pattern that you do have. For example, if you only have a volume number, it should be in italics; if you only have an issue number, it should be in (brackets).

Prinsloo, C. (2018). Students’ intrinsic perspectives on the diverse functions of short stories beyond language learning. System, 74, 87-97.

Article numbers

Some online only journals have article numbers. Often, these journals start every article at page 1, so page numbers are irrelevant. For journals with article numbers, put the article number in the place of the page numbers, after the word "Article":

Kitts-Morgan, S. E., Caires, K. C., Bohannon, L. A., Parsons, E. I., & Hilburn, K. A. (2015). Free-ranging farm cats: Home range size and predation on a livestock unit in northwest Georgia. PLoS ONE, 10(4), Article e0120513.

Special page numbers

If your page number contains letters (such as S12-S23 or A118-A125) write the page numbers exactly as they appear on the page - including the letters - both in text and in your reference list.

Kruger, D. J., Fisher, M. L., Strout, S. L., Clark, S., Lewis, S., & Wehbe, M. (2014). Pride and prejudice or family and flirtation? Jane Austen's depiction of women's mating strategies. Philosophy and Literature, 38(1), A114-A128.

A note on DOIs and URLs

Present both DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks (i.e., beginning with "http://" or "https://"). Links should be live if the work is to be published or read online.

The current format to be used for DOIs is: "", eg.

Do not place a full stop after the DOI or URL.

APA prefers short DOIs and URLs. If you need to shorten the DOI, use the short DOI service as only one short DOI is created for a particular DOI. If you need to shorten a URL, any URL shortening service that links to the correct resource is acceptable, eg. Bitly URL Shortener.‚Äč

Never use a URL like this: NsFnofUp91z6MDZximrjJULvmHuVZsbMJ8xN6FAl950s5TTFwXx9FS33aVsdKWIe65DrVuf5qXs901BjeNUnimliEafWYEVEMqKuDned52mAQZRtSPAHSIwiyuH5E3ZeZKJLc9vbgDHZyY-dg307nE3emSvo-A_r2IT1CqKyzkintmDJ59uw_1A5Ngt2wh4mtZiLHbjs_nwM2LjKrS8u2L3JPSMnis9P2aP5Rh1_ 96fM5I6VfTZQ5Vm3IObVLrz1uq83t82qJUPTIk4QTU14S2WKqzDKNF43TGxdW7cNVyYN2- cms-fSUAUfbdppLCJ8HZ9OeeVQ1DzagzVD1P18UKb4uQNgPHJa6VRnwqUyxYlEppRTkRIG8QiXARzPb01iKCaTvJQebbzPBbBPsk3oSOJibTKRaACN8e7hR-Q7soMioYpBIdVREwHUJ-PV2aVhBC1aCikOF058BKuInOTIF1OH5cH30DeghjrwC61y4bM

How to reference a journal article using APA 7th

Reference journal article using APA 7th animation

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